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#Git starter cheat sheet

Initialize a local repo

Run the following command in the folder where you would like to initialize a git repo.

git init

Get status

It is a good practice to frequently run check on status during development. The following command points out the changes between the previous commit and current state of the folder.

git status

Add content

To add an untracked file named ‘text.txt’ to the staging area, execute the following command.

git add text.txt

Syntax: git add <filename>

Commit changes

To commit changes made to the folder, execute the following command. The message will be used as a commit message to associate this check-in with the message.

git commit –m “Add text.txt to the code base.”

Syntax: git commit –m “<Commit message>”

Add using wild card

To add multiple files using a wild card character, execute the following command.

git add ‘*.txt’

Syntax: git add ‘<wildcard_character+string>’

Check history

Review commit history using the following command.

git log

Add Remote repository

To push the local repo to the remote git server, we need to add a remote repository.

git remote add origin http://<remote_host>/<repo_name>/<repo+name>.git

Pushing remotely

The push command tells Git where to put our commits. The name of our remote is origin and the default local branch name is master. The -u option allows git to remember the parameters for subsequent pushes.

git push -u origin master

Pulling remotely

Pull the latest changes from the remote repository to your local repository. All changes since your last push will be pulled down to the local repo.

git pull origin master

Identifying differences

The following command shows the differences between our last commit and the current state of the remote repo. HEAD refers to our recent commit.

git diff HEAD




Staged differences

The diff command can also be used to identify changes within the files that have already been staged.

git diff --staged

Resetting the staged additions

Sometimes, we may choose to un-stage changes that have not been pushed to the repo.

git reset <repo_name>/<file_name>

Undo

Files can be changed back to the way they were at the last commit. When this command is executed, any files that were not committed will be removed from the local folder.

git checkout -- <filename_to_be_removed>

Creating a branch

git branch <branch_name>

Display branches

View list of all branches using the following command.

git branch

Switching branches

To switch to a branch, execute the following.

git checkout <branch_name>

Removing

Delete one or more files from the branch or master.

git rm ‘*.txt’
git rm text.txt

Committing branch changes

git commit –m “<message_text>”

Switching back to master

To merge or copy your changes made in the branch to your master, first switch over to the master branch.

git checkout master

Perform merge

Prepare to merge changes from branch to master.

git merge <branch_name_to_copy_from>
git push

Checkout theirs or ours

git checkout --theirs myscript.py
git checkout --ours myscript.py

Overwrite master branch with another branch

[Not a recommended practice]

git checkout fix-tests
git merge -s ours master
git checkout master
git merge fix-tests

Clean up branch

git branch –d <branch_name_to_cleanup>

List all remotes

git remote -v




Revert local changes

git checkout .
git reset


Delete last remote commit 

git reset --soft HEAD~1
git stash
git push -u -f origin master


Rebase 

git rebase -i <commit_hash>

pick/drop hashes as needed

Resolve any merge conflicts and git add *

git rebase --continue

git push -u origin master



Remove untracked files

git clean -f



Remove untracked files and directories

git clean -fd


Tagging

git tag <tag_name>
git push -u origin <branch> --tags


Git log readable one line

git log --pretty=oneline 

git log --pretty=oneline -5 (last five commits)



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