Initialize a local repo
Run the following command in the folder where you would like to initialize a git repo.
It is a good practice to frequently run check on status during development. The following command points out the changes between the previous commit and current state of the folder.
To add an untracked file named ‘text.txt’ to the staging area, execute the following command.
git add text.txt
Syntax: git add <filename>
To commit changes made to the folder, execute the following command. The message will be used as a commit message to associate this check-in with the message.
git commit –m “Add text.txt to the code base.”
Syntax: git commit –m “<Commit message>”
Add using wild card
To add multiple files using a wild card character, execute the following command.
git add ‘*.txt’
Syntax: git add ‘<wildcard_character+string>’
Review commit history using the following command.
Add Remote repository
To push the local repo to the remote git server, we need to add a remote repository.
git remote add origin
The push command tells Git where to put our commits. The name of our remote is origin and the default local branch name is master. The -u option allows git to remember the parameters for subsequent pushes.
git push -u origin master
Pull the latest changes from the remote repository to your local repository. All changes since your last push will be pulled down to the local repo.
git pull origin master
The following command shows the differences between our last commit and the current state of the remote repo. HEAD refers to our recent commit.
git diff HEAD
The diff command can also be used to identify changes within the files that have already been staged.
git diff --staged
Resetting the staged additions
Sometimes, we may choose to un-stage changes that have not been pushed to the repo.
git reset <repo_name>/<file_name>
Files can be changed back to the way they were at the last commit. When this command is executed, any files that were not committed will be removed from the local folder.
git checkout -- <filename_to_be_removed>
Creating a branch
git branch <branch_name>
View list of all branches using the following command.
To switch to a branch, execute the following.
git checkout <branch_name>
Delete one or more files from the branch or master.
git rm ‘*.txt’
git rm text.txt
Committing branch changes
git commit –m “<message_text>”
Switching back to master
To merge or copy your changes made in the branch to your master, first switch over to the master branch.
git checkout master
Prepare to merge changes from branch to master.
git merge <branch_name_to_copy_from>
Clean up branch
git branch –d <branch_name_to_cleanup>
List all remotes
git remote -v
Revert local changes
git checkout .
Remove untracked files
git clean -f
Remove untracked files and directories
git clean -fd